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Open Access Case Report

Severe progressive scoliosis due to huge subcutaneous cavernous hemangioma: A case report

Yoji Ogura1, Kota Watanabe2, Naobumi Hosogane1, Takashi Tsuji1, Ken Ishii1, Masaya Nakamura1, Yoshiaki Toyama1, Kazuhiro Chiba1 and Morio Matsumoto1*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan

2 Department of Advanced Treatment for Spine and Spinal Cord Disorders, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan

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Scoliosis 2011, 6:3  doi:10.1186/1748-7161-6-3

Published: 17 March 2011

Abstract

Cavernous hemangioma consists mainly of congenital vascular malformations present before birth and gradually increasing in size with skeletal growth. A small number of patients with cavernous hemangioma develop scoliosis, and surgical treatment for the scoliosis in such cases has not been reported to date. Here we report a 12-year-old male patient with severe progressive scoliosis due to a huge subcutaneous cavernous hemangioma, who underwent posterior correction and fusion surgery. Upon referral to our department, radiographs revealed a scoliosis of 85° at T6-L1 and a kyphosis of 58° at T4-T10. CT and MR images revealed a huge hemangioma extending from the subcutaneous region to the paraspinal muscles and the retroperitoneal space and invading the spinal canal. Posterior correction and fusion surgery using pedicle screws between T2 and L3 were performed. Massive hemorrhage from the hemangioma occurred during the surgery, with intraoperative blood loss reaching 2800 ml. The scoliosis was corrected to 59°, and the kyphosis to 45° after surgery. Seven hours after surgery, the patient suffered from hypovolemic shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation due to postoperative hemorrhage from the hemangioma. The patient developed sensory and conduction aphasia caused by cerebral hypoxia during the shock on the day of the surgery. At present, two years after the surgery, although the patient has completely recovered from the aphasia. This case illustrates that, in correction surgery for scoliosis due to huge subcutaneous cavernous hemangioma, intraoperative and postoperative intensive care for hemodynamics should be performed, since massive hemorrhage can occur during the postoperative period as well as the intraoperative period.