Open Access Open Badges Methodology

Validation of Italian version of Brace Questionnaire (BrQ)

Angelo G Aulisa1*, Vincenzo Guzzanti12, Marco Galli4, Carmen Erra3, Giorgio Scudieri4 and Luca Padua35

Author Affiliations

1 Orthopaedics and Traumatology Division, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, Institute of Scientific Research, Piazza San Onofrio 4, 00165 Rome, Italy

2 Department of Orthopaedics, University of Cassino, Strada Folcare, 4, 03043 Cassino, FR, Italy

3 Don Carlo Gnocchi Foundation, Piazzale Morandi 6, 20121 Milan, Italy

4 Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, University Hospital “Agostino Gemelli”, L.go A. Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome, Italy

5 Department of Neurosciences, Institute of Neurology, Chatolic University of Sacred Heart, University Hospital “Agostino Gemelli”, L.go A. Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome, Italy

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Scoliosis 2013, 8:13  doi:10.1186/1748-7161-8-13

Published: 20 August 2013



Brace questionnaire (BrQ) is a tool used to evaluate Health Quality of Life (HRQoL) in patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) that undergo bracing treatment. The BrQ has not been translated and validated for Italian-speaking patients with AIS. The aim of the study was to perform a trans-cultural validation of BrQ to be used in an Italian speaking population.


Translation into Italian (I-BrQ) and back translation to the original Greek (G-BrQ) was performed. The final I-BrQ was then analyzed for Italian cultural characteristics and no inconsistencies were found. After that, construct validity was measured analyzing the I-BrQ relationship with 1) Scoliosis Research Society-22 patient Questionnaire (SRS-22), in order to evaluate the relationship with another patient-oriented questionnaire not focused on brace therapy; 2) Cobb degree scale, in order to evaluate the relationship with the magnitude of the curve. Reproducibility was also tested.


Translation of the G-BrQ into Italian was successful and back-translation to Greek corresponded well with the original Greek version.

Global I-BrQ correlated strongly with SRS-22 (r = 0.826; p < 0.001). Almost all sub scores from each I-BrQ domain strongly correlated with the single domain scores of SRS-22. Only two I-BrQ sub scores weakly inversely correlated with Cobb degree value.

Reproducibility was good (Spearman-Brown coefficient value was 0.943; p < 0.05).


Trans-cultural validation in Italian language showed the validity and reliability of the I-BrQ.

BrQ; Quality of life; Brace; Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; Brace questionnaire